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The triliteral root jīm bā rā (ج ب ر) occurs in the Quran 13 times.

Dictator (lat. dictator, from dicto — dictating, prescribing) is a political leader who possesses absolute power. A state which is ruled by a dictator is called a dictatorship. The word originated as the title of a magistrate in the Roman Republic appointed by the Senate to rule the republic in times of emergency.

Despotism (greek: Δεσποτισμός, despotismós) is a form of government in which a single entity rules with absolute power. Normally, that entity is an individual, the despot, as in an autocracy, but societies which limit respect and power to specific groups have also been called despotic.


Originally an emergency legal appointment in the Roman Republic, the term "Dictator" did not have the negative meaning it has now. A Dictator was a magistrate given sole power for a limited duration. At the end of the term, the Dictator's power was returned to normal Consular rule whereupon a dictator provided accountability, though not all dictators accepted a return to power sharing.

Word Dictator - late 14c., «dictatour», «Roman chief magistrate with absolute authority», from Old French «dictator» and directly from Latin «dictator», agent noun from «dictare» - «say often, prescribe», frequentative of dicere «to say, speak» (from PIE root *deik- «to show», also «pronounce solemnly»).

In Latin, a dictator was a judge in the Roman republic temporarily invested with absolute power; this historical sense was the original one in English. The transferred sense of «absolute ruler, person possessing unlimited powers of government» is from c. 1600; that of «one who has absolute power or authority» of any kind, in any sphere is from 1590s.

Despot - «absolute ruler» 1560s, in Italian form «dispotto» (1580s as despot); from Medieval Latin «despota», from Greek «despotēs» - «master of a household, lord, absolute ruler», from PIE *dems-pota- «house-master» from the genitive of the root *dem- «house, household» + second element from PIE root *poti- «powerful; lord». The compound might be prehistoric; compare Sanskrit «dampati» - «lord».

Quran corpus data

The triliteral root jīm bā rā (ج ب ر) occurs in the Quran 13 times, including name «Gabriel - Jibrīl», which has been mentioned 3 times.


  • Gabriel - Jibrīl (/ˈɡeɪbriəl/; Hebrew: גַּבְרִיאֵל‎, lit. 'Gavri'el "God is my strength"', Ancient Greek: Γαβριήλ, lit. 'Gabriel', Coptic: Ⲅⲁⲃⲣⲓⲏⲗ, Aramaic: ܓܒܪܝܝܠ‎, Arabic: جبريل, Jibrīl), in the Abrahamic religions, is an archangel. He was first described in the Hebrew Bible.
  • Algebra (from Arabic "al-jabr", literally meaning "reunion of broken parts") is one of the broad parts of mathematics, together with number theory, geometry and analysis. In its most general form, algebra is the study of mathematical symbols and the rules for manipulating these symbols; it is a unifying thread of almost all of mathematics.

In The Quran


(59:23) He is God; there is no god - but He. The King, the Holy, the Peace, the Trusted, the Supreme, the Noble, The Dictator (Arab.الْجَبَّارُ, al-jabbaaru), the Dignified. God be glorified; far above what they set up.

Gabriel - Jibrīl

(2:97-98) Say, "Whoever is an enemy to Gabriel (Arab. لِجِبْرِيلَ, lijib'rīla), then (know) that he has sent it down into your heart by God's permission, authenticating what is already present, and a guide and good news for those who acknowledge. Whoever was an enemy to God and His angels, and His messengers, and Gabriel (Arab. وَجِبْرِيلَ, wajib'rīla), and Michael, then so God is the enemy to the rejectors."

(66:4) If you both repent to God, then (be aware, that) your hearts have inclined (to wrong decision). But if you backup (each other) against him, then indeed God - He is his protector. And Gabriel (Arab. وَجِبْرِيلُ, wajib'rīlu), and the righteous of those who acknowledge, and the angels after that are his supporters.

Dictate - absolute power

(50:45) We know (better) of what they say, and you don't have (authoritarian) dictate (Arab. بِجَبَّارٍ, bijabbārin) over them. So (teach) methodology, using the Quran - for those who fear My promise.

Moses and despotism

Despotic character

(28:19) But when he intended to grip the one, who was their enemy, he said, "O Moses! Do you intend to kill me, as you killed a person yesterday? Obviously, you intend to be a despot (Arab. جَبَّارًا, jabbāran) on the Earth! And you do not intend to be among (self) improvers."

see also Moses and coach

Despotic inhabitants

(5:22) They said, "O Moses, there are despotic (Arab. جَبَّارِينَ, jabbārīna) inhabitants in there. And indeed, we will not enter it, until they leave from it. So when they leave, then certainly, we will enter it."

Despotic behaviour

(19:13-14) And kindness from Us, and purity, and he was responsible (person). Pious to his parents, and never was he a disobedient despot (Arab. جَبَّارًا, jabbāran).

(19:32) "And pious to my mother, and He did not make me a miserable despot (Arab. جَبَّارًا, jabbāran)."