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The triliteral root nūn fā sīn (ن ف س) occurs in the Quran 298 times.


(2:155) We will test you with some fear and hunger, and a shortage in money and lives (Arab. وَالْأَنْفُسِ, wal-anfusi) and fruits. Give good news to those who are patient.

(9:111) God has purchased from those who acknowledge their very lives (Arab. أَنْفُسَهُمْ, anfusahum) and their wealth; that they will have the Garden. They fight in the cause of God so they kill and are killed. A promise that is true upon Him in the Torah, the Injeel and the Quran. Whoever fulfills his pledge to God, then have good news of the deal which you concluded with. Such is the supreme success.

(28:19) But when he intended to grip the one, who was their enemy, he said, "O Moses! Do you intend to kill me, as you killed a person (Arab. نَفْسًا, nafsan) yesterday? Obviously, you intend to be a despot on the Earth! And you do not intend to be among (self) improvers."

Ego in Freud's model of the psyche

The Ego is one of three distinct, yet interacting agents in the psychic apparatus defined in Sigmund Freud's structural model of the psyche.

(50:21) And every ego (Arab. نَفْسٍ, nafsin) is brought, with Id, and with a Super-ego.

Nervous system

(91:7-8) And a nervous system (Arab. وَنَفْسٍ, wanafsin), and how He balanced it. So He coordinated it's sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions.

Those who forgot themselves

(59:19) Do not be like those who forgot God, so He made them forget themselves (Arab. أَنْفُسَهُمْ, anfusahum). These are the wicked.

(9:67) The hypocrite men and the hypocrite women, they are the same. They order evil, deter from good, and they are tightfisted. They forgot God, so He forgot them; the hypocrites are the wicked.

Signs within themselves

(41:53) We will show them Our signs in the horizons, and within themselves (Arab. أَنْفُسِهِمْ, anfusihim), until it becomes clear to them that this is the truth. Is it not enough that your Lord is witness over all things?

(51:20-21) In the earth are signs for those who are certain. And within yourselves (Arab. أَنْفُسِكُمْ, anfusikum); do you not see?

God prescribed mercy upon Himself

(6:12) Say, "To whom is all that is in heavens and earth?" Say, "To God." He has prescribed mercy upon Himself (Arab. نَفْسِهِ, nafsihi), that He will gather you to the day of Resurrection in which there is no doubt. Those who have lost themselves, they do not acknowledge.

(6:54) If those who acknowledge Our signs come to you, then say, "Peace be upon you, our Lord has prescribed mercy upon Himself (Arab. نَفْسِهِ, nafsihi), that any of you who commits sin out of ignorance and then repents afterwards and reforms, then He is Forgiving, Compassionate."


(3:93) All the food used to be lawful to the Children of Israel, except what Israel forbade for himself (Arab. نَفْسِهِ, nafsihi) before the Torah was sent down. Say, "Bring the Torah and recite it if you are truthful."