Samsara

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Samsara (/səmˈsɑːrə/) is a Sanskrit word that means "wandering" or "world", with the connotation of cyclic, circuitous change. It also refers to the concept of rebirth and "cyclicality of all life, matter, existence", a fundamental assumption of most Indian religions. In short, it is the cycle of death and rebirth. Samsara is sometimes referred to with terms or phrases such as transmigration, karmic cycle, reincarnation, and "cycle of aimless drifting, wandering or mundane existence".

Quranic word «Gehenna» corresponds to Sanskrit word «Samsara».

«Gehenna - Jahannam» (/ɡɪˈhɛnə/; גיא בן הינום‬; Ancient Greek: γέεννα; Arab. جهنم) from the Hebrew Gehinnom (Rabbinical: גהנום‬/גהנם‬) is a small valley in Jerusalem. In the Hebrew Bible, Gehenna was initially where some of the kings of Judah sacrificed their children by fire.

Samsara Corpus Count

Word «Jahannam» - Samsara appears in the Quran - 77 times.

Etymology

«Gehenna»

English "Gehenna" represents the Greek Ge'enna (γέεννα) found in the New Testament, a phonetic transcription of Aramaic Gēhannā (ܓܗܢܐ), equivalent to the Hebrew Ge Hinnom, literally "Valley of Hinnom".

«Samsara»

Saṃsāra (Sanskrit: संसार) means "wandering", as well as "world" wherein the term connotes "cyclic change". Saṃsāra is a fundamental concept in all Indian religions, is linked to the karma theory, and refers to the belief that all living beings (in The Quran it mainly refers to human beings) cyclically go through births and rebirths. The term is related to phrases such as "the cycle of successive existence", "transmigration", "karmic cycle", "the wheel of life", and "cyclicality of all life, matter, existence".Many scholarly texts spell Saṃsāra as Samsara.

According to Monier-Williams, Saṃsāra is rooted in the term Saṃsṛ (संसृ), which means "to go round, revolve, pass through a succession of states, to go towards or obtain, moving in a circuit". A conceptual form from this root appears in ancient texts as Saṃsaraṇa, which means "going around through a succession of states, birth, rebirth of living beings and the world", without obstruction.

The concept of Samsara is then contrasted with the concept of moksha, also known as mukti, nirvana, nibbana or kaivalya, which refers to liberation from this cycle of aimless wandering.

The concept of Samsara developed in the post-Vedic times, and is traceable in the Samhita layers such as in sections 1.164, 4.55, 6.70 and 10.14 of the Rigveda. While the idea is mentioned in the Samhita layers of the Vedas, there is lack of clear exposition there, and the idea fully develops in the early Upanishads. The word Samsara appears, along with Moksha, in several Principal Upanishads such as in verse 1.3.7 of the Katha Upanishad, verse 6.16 of the Shvetashvatara Upanishad, verses 1.4 and 6.34 of the Maitri Upanishad.

In The Quran

Samsara is for those who rejected

(39:71) Those who rejected will be driven to Samsara (Arab. جَهَنَّمَ, jahannama) in groups. When they reach it, and its gates are opened, its guards will say to them: "Did you not receive messengers from among you, who recited to you the signs of your Lord, and warned you about meeting this day?" They said, "Yes, but the promise of retribution was destined to be upon the ingrates."

Samsara is a miserable abode

(2:206) If he is told, "Be conscientious of God," his pride leads to more sin. Samsara (Arab. جَهَنَّمُ, jahannamu) shall be sufficient for him; what a miserable abode!

(3:12) Say to those who did not appreciate, "You will be defeated and gathered towards Samsara (Arab. جَهَنَّمَ, jahannama). What a miserable abode!"

(3:162) Is one who follows the pleasure of God, as one who draws the wrath of God and whose abode is Samsara (Arab. جَهَنَّمُ, jahannamu)? What a miserable destiny!

(3:197) A brief enjoyment, then their abode is Samsara (Arab. جَهَنَّمُ, jahannamu). What a miserable abode!

(4:97) Those whom the angels take, while they had wronged themselves; were asked, "What situation were you in?" They responded, "We were oppressed on earth." They asked, "Was God's earth not wide enough that you could emigrate in it?" To these their abode will be Samsara (Arab. جَهَنَّمُ, jahannamu); what a miserable destiny;

Neurosis of Samsara

(4:55) Some of them acknowledged it, and some of them turned from it. Suffices (for them) neurosis of Samsara (Arab. جَهَنَّمَ, jahannama).

Samsara as a reward

(4:93) Whoever kills one who acknowledged intentionally, then his reward shall be Samsara (Arab. جَهَنَّمُ, jahannamu), eternally abiding therein; God will be angry with him, curse him, and for him is prepared a great retribution.

Path of Samsara

(4:168-169) Those who have rejected and did wrong, God was not to forgive them, nor guide them to a path. Except to the path of Samsara (Arab. جَهَنَّمَ, jahannama), in it they will abide eternally. For God this is very easy.

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